Wednesday, October 1, 2008

Back to the Basics

I realize that our focus has of late moved from tracker-specific discussion to more-general stuff that applies to any site or server and can be found in a bazillion places online. Since this blog is unique because it does chronicle the operation of a BitTorrent tracker, I'm going to get back to the meat of the thing for a bit. OnionRings plans to continue with his Linux series, but is sadly indisposed this evening.

In some senses I will cover some of the same material as our second-ever blog entry, but with a different focus. While that entry gave a quick overview of why and how to set up a tracker, I'm going to look a little more closely at the technical and logistical aspects of bringing a tracker online.

First off, what do you personally need to bring to the table? (You're probably the only one at the metaphorical table at this point, but the bringing should commence now.) Beyond anything else, you need to understand the BitTorrent protocol, and understand your tracker of choice. We'll talk a bit about choosing trackers shortly. If you plan on running a PHP/MySQL tracker, you'd better have at least a working knowledge of PHP and MySQL. From the get-go, you'll need to be able to peer into the inner workings of your site and see what makes it tick. You don't just need an understanding of the protocol, but of your own tracker. Trust me, admin panels are nice, but some things just require you to get down and dirty. However complete your chosen script may look at first glance, there will quickly come a time when you or your users bemoan the lack or poor design of some feature or another, and you will be forced to go in and remedy the situation. As the tracker grows and moves to its first dedicated server, it will also become important to know your way around Linux to some extent.

Secondly, you need a hook to pull people in. The most obvious aspect is to provide something that others can't. A unique idea is neat, but it's entirely possible to carve out a niche in a "market" that is well-developed but not saturated. For example, if you have terabytes of obscure movies that you have spent years collecting, starting a movie tracker to share these can be an excellent starting point. Of course, you will need to keep all the uploaded torrents active, even though you will be getting very few peers at first. For this purpose, you may want to consider renting a seedbox. The added cost may be hard for a brand new tracker admin to swallow, but your ability to saturate the connections of your first members will do a lot to encourage them to stick around and maybe even contribute some stuff of their own. As well, a unique design may sound frivolous, but it will lend your site credibility and a sense of longevity. I've covered some methods of early promotion in the post I mentioned above, so I won't rehash them here.

I hate to be defeatist, but if you can't meet these requirements, you should think twice about starting a tracker. Of course, the lovely thing about being a human is the capacity to learn, but you should get going on that learning well before you even consider getting into tracker territory. While I'm trying to demystify the role of the tracker administrator, it's certainly a job that not everyone has the skill and disposition to fill with any great success.

Moving on to more technical requirements, you will also need to choose a tracker. That's a given. The three most popular trackers under active development are TBdev, TorrentTrader, and the new Project Gazelle, although there are a ton of other options out there, so you shouldn't feel constrained to choosing one of these three. Shop around a bit. Detailed comparison of these and other trackers is well outside the scope of this entry, and perhaps even of this blog, but this should point you in the right direction. At the end of the day, it's up to you to select the tracker that best suits your particular tastes and needs. As a side note: for the love of God, don't use TorrentTrader Classic.

So, why not just boot Azureus or ĀµTorrent or one of these handy ubiquitous little torrent clients that happen to include the ability to operate as standalone trackers? Hopefully this isn't a question you were asking yourself, but I'll answer it anyway. First, this isn't the purpose they were designed for. Just because they can run a tracker doesn't mean they should. They're not optimized for the purpose, they don't include features that are necessary for the smooth operation of a tracker (they're inherently open to anyone that wants to use them), and they include a ton of features and bloat that will just bog down your server. What's more, part of the sort of tracker we're discussing here is the index, or frontend. This is the bit where torrents are uploaded, downloaded, where users interact with one another, all that sort of stuff. The tracker itself is ridiculously simple in operation, as we will see in my eventual piece-by-piece breakdown of what it takes to build one from scratch. The important business is the complex frontend, and BitTorrent clients' wannabe trackers just can't provide this.

So, once you've selected the script that best fits your needs, it's time to choose a host. I've had some requests to list a number of torrent-friendly hosts, but that's not something I'm going to do for a number of reasons. The most important reason here is that I don't want to endorse a host that turns out to be unsafe, or to lull readers into a false sense of security. You may have noticed that even (especially) the biggest trackers tend to move around a lot. The world of web hosts is intrinsically volatile, so to proclaim that one host is perfectly safe, even if presently true, is to ignore the fact that this may not continue to be the case in the future. LeaseWeb was once a safe haven for trackers, but after losing a lengthy court battle on behalf of Demonoid and other trackers, all the will to fight has gone out of them. Nowadays, if a copyright holder says "boo", they'll turn around and shut you down.

So simply accept that no place is perfectly safe, and operate under the assumption that you could be taken down tomorrow – you could be. A good strategy to find places that are safer is to run whois lookups on established trackers' IP addresses. Presumably, if they are able to operate on a particular host, that host must be somewhat resistant to legal threats. The only problem is that many larger trackers own their own servers which they operate via colocation in the host's datacenter, while you are likely unable to afford more than a rented dedicated server (an important distinction to make). Not all hosts supply both options, and not all do so for reasonable rates. In addition to colocated and dedicated servers, I've talked about shared and virtual hosting in that previous article, so I'm not going to rehash that here.

This should be all you need to get you off the ground. Again, I'm not going into exacting detail on some of the technical points because I'm assuming that you will be able to handle the fiddly bits of your own accord. If you can't, like I mentioned, you probably shouldn't be running a tracker.

If there are any points on the subject (or any other, really) that you would like us to cover, leave a comment on this post and we'll do our best to touch on them in future posts.


Jack said...

Whats wrong with TorrentTrader?

inputOutput said...

Can you talk about trackers using upload credits/donations?

CurlyFries said...

@jack: Notice that I said TorrentTrader Classic. I've never used the new version, but Classic is a textbook case of what not to do in a PHP script. It uses a sloppy fix in order to make the sloppy code compatible with PHP 5, has awfully-structured coding that seems to think comments are for losers, and seems to be designed with more emphasis on gimmicks than functional code. Oh yeah, and the default theme is ug-ly! The only TorrentTrader site I've seen that looks nice is, well, mine.

The MySQL database has a few bizarre structural choices and strange field names, but is otherwise pretty sound.

@inputoutput: I'll be talking about finances in a future post. It's definitely an important subject.

Clicky Web Analytics